Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) resembles type 2 DM in several respects, involving a combination of relatively inadequate insulin secretion and responsiveness. It occurs in about 2–10% of all pregnancies and may improve or disappear after delivery.[50] However, after pregnancy approximately 5–10% of women with GDM are found to have DM, most commonly type 2.[50] GDM is fully treatable, but requires careful medical supervision throughout the pregnancy. Management may include dietary changes, blood glucose monitoring, and in some cases, insulin may be required.

The results of his medical tests are still being analyzed, Darkes said, but he hasn't needed insulin injections for a year and a half. "It took a long time to sink in," he noted. But Darkes is confident he no longer has type 1 diabetes. He said that doctors told him that he has a "rare" gene that somehow facilitated his cure. "I'm the only one who carries [the gene], at the moment," and there's no further explanation so far, he said.
The ketogenic, or keto, diet calls for dramatically increasing your fat intake and consuming a moderate amount of protein and a very low amount of carbs, with the aim of kicking your body into a natural metabolic state called ketosis, in which it relies on burning fat rather than carbs for energy. Ketosis is different from diabetic ketoacidosis, a health emergency that occurs when insulin levels are low in conjunction with high levels of ketones. (37) Ketones are by-products of metabolism that are released in the blood when carb intake is low.
Pain specialist Karen Burt, MD, director of Integrative Medicine at Contra Costa Regional Health Center in California, says that spiritual approaches help many people with chronic pain. “With chronic pain,” she says, “one needs to connect or return to all positive aspects of one’s being and one’s life. So if puppies and kids and nature and flowers and hot baths and your sister bring you pleasure and comfort, by all means, keep them in your life. By the same token, everyone has internal sources of positivity: one’s faith, one’s awe and appreciation of nature or life itself, and qualities like strength, courage, wisdom, hope, and inspiration.”
Christina Kalberg is the Executive Director of the Diabetes Research Connection (DRC). She comes to DRC with over 10 years of experience as a senior-level executive effectively integrating passion and in-depth skill into well-crafted marketing, public relations, communications, operations and fundraising campaigns to directly fuel multi-million-dollar revenue growth. Christina is a strategist, deftly aligning staff and other stakeholders. She has a Bachelor’s degree in Journalism with an emphasis in Public Relations and a Master’s degree in Business Administration. Christina is also an adjunct professor for the marketing program at Point Loma Nazarene University, where she teaches Digital and Social Media Marketing.
The other way to make such things accessible is to inundate attendees with advertising—which can undermine the concept by making us feel inadequate without this product or that, rather than by affirming our wholeness. Poolside, Hoess told me that he believes there can still be profit in a less consumerist direction, but that it’s necessary to “redefine capitalism to where it’s not just about pure profit, it’s also about social profit. If we can merge those things, I think business becomes a force for good.”

Though the Oxford English Dictionary traces wellness (meaning the opposite of illness) to the 1650s, the story of the wellness movement really begins in the 1950s. New approaches to healthful living were emerging then, inspired in part by the preamble to the World Health Organization’s 1948 constitution: “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” Halbert L. Dunn, chief of the National Office of Vital Statistics, was looking for new terminology to convey the positive aspects of health that people could achieve, beyond simply avoiding sickness. In a series of papers and lectures in the late ’50s, Dunn sketched out his concept of “high-level wellness,” defined as “an integrated method of functioning, which is oriented toward maximizing the potential of which the individual is capable.”


Though not routinely used any longer, the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is a gold standard for making the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. It is still commonly used for diagnosing gestational diabetes and in conditions of pre-diabetes, such as polycystic ovary syndrome. With an oral glucose tolerance test, the person fasts overnight (at least eight but not more than 16 hours). Then first, the fasting plasma glucose is tested. After this test, the person receives an oral dose (75 grams) of glucose. There are several methods employed by obstetricians to do this test, but the one described here is standard. Usually, the glucose is in a sweet-tasting liquid that the person drinks. Blood samples are taken at specific intervals to measure the blood glucose.
People with diabetes may also worry about trying new foods; traveling; diabetes complications; the toll the condition takes on their family; and healthcare costs, which are 2.3 times higher than for someone without diabetes. For Sandi, she worries about the cost of medication and, if her kidneys worsen, the possibility that she’ll have to go on dialysis. “That’s a really scary thought,” she says.
With research funding, people managing this challenging disease have received tools that help them to live better lives. Every advancement or milestone has elevated our understanding of Type 1, achieved improved management and has gotten us one-step closer to an actual cure. That’s why donating to diabetes research is so important — it’s the only way we’ll eliminate this disease.
Stream a variety of exercise routines to get you moving and motivated! GlucoseZone™ is a digital exercise program that provides you with personalized exercise guidance and support designed to help you achieve the diabetes and fitness results you want. American Diabetes Association members receive an exclusive discount on their GlucoseZone subscription when they sign up using their ADA member ID!
Over time, a prolonged exposure to high blood sugar can damage the nerves throughout the body — a condition called diabetic neuropathy. Some people may not have any symptoms of the damage, while others may notice numbness, tingling, or pain in the extremities. “At the beginning, [diabetic neuropathy] usually starts in the feet and then it progresses upward,” says Dr. Ovalle. Although most common in people who have had type 2 diabetes for 25 years or more, it can occur in people who have prediabetes as well. In some studies, almost 50 percent of unexplained peripheral neuropathy [in the extremities], whether painful or otherwise, turns out to be caused by prediabetes or diabetes, says Dr. Einhorn.
A Wall Street Journal op-ed by Tommy Meyerson, a veteran of the Syria campaign, argues that “the Kurdish-led civil administration does the heavy lifting of guarding hundreds of ISIS’ most dangerous foreign fighters,” asserts that the West “owes them a debt,” and warns that a Turkish invasion into territory they hold “would force Kurdish forces to pull back from the front lines against the remnant of ISIS, allowing the jihadists to regroup and proliferate.”
A 2017 article in the journal Diabetes Care explains that the goals for dietary change should be “healthful eating patterns emphasizing a variety of nutrient-dense foods in appropriate portion sizes.” Additional goals include achieving a healthy weight; attaining healthy blood sugar, blood pressure, and lipid levels; and reducing complications. The authors emphasize developing an individualized plan based on “personal and cultural preferences, health literacy and numeracy, access to healthful foods, willingness and ability to make behavioral changes, and barriers to change.”
In countries using a general practitioner system, such as the United Kingdom, care may take place mainly outside hospitals, with hospital-based specialist care used only in case of complications, difficult blood sugar control, or research projects. In other circumstances, general practitioners and specialists share care in a team approach. Home telehealth support can be an effective management technique.[100]

Since cardiovascular disease is a serious complication associated with diabetes, some have recommended blood pressure levels below 130/80 mmHg.[89] However, evidence supports less than or equal to somewhere between 140/90 mmHg to 160/100 mmHg; the only additional benefit found for blood pressure targets beneath this range was an isolated decrease in stroke risk, and this was accompanied by an increased risk of other serious adverse events.[90][91] A 2016 review found potential harm to treating lower than 140 mmHg.[92] Among medications that lower blood pressure, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) improve outcomes in those with DM while the similar medications angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) do not.[93] Aspirin is also recommended for people with cardiovascular problems, however routine use of aspirin has not been found to improve outcomes in uncomplicated diabetes.[94]
“I am extremely pleased to see that technology developed in Tejal Desai’s group is getting to the point that we can explore this for therapeutic purposes,” Matthias Hebrok, PhD, the director of the Diabetes Center at UCSF and a member of Encellin’s scientific advisory board, noted on the UCSF website. “Encapsulation and protection of islet cells remain a critical hurdle that needs to be overcome before cell therapy becomes a reality in type 1 diabetes.”
The body obtains glucose from three main sources: the intestinal absorption of food; the breakdown of glycogen (glycogenolysis), the storage form of glucose found in the liver; and gluconeogenesis, the generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate substrates in the body.[60] Insulin plays a critical role in balancing glucose levels in the body. Insulin can inhibit the breakdown of glycogen or the process of gluconeogenesis, it can stimulate the transport of glucose into fat and muscle cells, and it can stimulate the storage of glucose in the form of glycogen.[60]

Our research project directory showcases the diverse and exciting array of diabetes research projects that we are supporting all over the UK. Everything you see is possible thanks to the continued support of our members, donors and voluntary groups – who help us decide which studies deserve the charity's support and help raise the money that is vital to research.
When there is excess glucose present in the blood, as with type 2 diabetes, the kidneys react by flushing it out of the blood and into the urine. This results in more urine production and the need to urinate more frequently, as well as an increased risk of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in men and women. People with type 2 diabetes are twice as likely to get a UTI as people without the disease, and the risk is higher in women than in men.
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