Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar (glucose) levels that result from defects in insulin secretion, or its action, or both. Diabetes mellitus, commonly referred to as diabetes (as it will be in this article) was first identified as a disease associated with "sweet urine," and excessive muscle loss in the ancient world. Elevated levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia) lead to spillage of glucose into the urine, hence the term sweet urine.
Type II diabetes is more common than Type I diabetes in India. Type II diabetes usually happens to people who are above the age of 40. This type of diabetes is caused due to insulin resistance. In this case, the pancreas produces insulin but the body is not able to respond to it properly. There can be many reasons behind type II diabetes. Some of the reasons can be being overweight, high blood pressure, having a poor diet, taking too much stress, hormone imbalance, certain medications and leading a sedentary lifestyle. Though type II diabetes can be reversed.
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A major feature of the disease is a condition known as insulin resistance.  Insulin is a hormone that moves glucose (sugar), from the bloodstream into the body’s cells where it is used for energy.  For a variety of reasons that are not fully understood, the body’s tissues don’t respond adequately to insulin and glucose then becomes elevated in the bloodstream.
A major feature of the disease is a condition known as insulin resistance.  Insulin is a hormone that moves glucose (sugar), from the bloodstream into the body’s cells where it is used for energy.  For a variety of reasons that are not fully understood, the body’s tissues don’t respond adequately to insulin and glucose then becomes elevated in the bloodstream.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) resembles type 2 DM in several respects, involving a combination of relatively inadequate insulin secretion and responsiveness. It occurs in about 2–10% of all pregnancies and may improve or disappear after delivery.[50] However, after pregnancy approximately 5–10% of women with GDM are found to have DM, most commonly type 2.[50] GDM is fully treatable, but requires careful medical supervision throughout the pregnancy. Management may include dietary changes, blood glucose monitoring, and in some cases, insulin may be required.
One of the most common ways people with type 2 diabetes attempt to lower their blood sugar is by drastically reducing their intake of carbs. The ADA agrees that carbohydrate counting is essential if you have diabetes, but extreme diets like the ketogenic diet, which reduces carb intake to as little as 5 percent of your daily calories, can be risky for some people with diabetes. (36)
Creatinine is a chemical waste molecule that is generated from muscle metabolism. Creatinine is produced from creatine, a molecule of major importance for energy production in muscles. Creatinine has been found to be a fairly reliable indicator of kidney function. As the kidneys become impaired the creatinine level in the blood will rise. Normal levels of creatinine in the blood vary from gender and age of the individual.

Refined sugar: Refined sugar rapidly spikes blood glucose, and soda, fruit juice and other sugary beverages are the worst culprits. These forms of sugar enter the bloodstream rapidly and can cause extreme elevations in blood glucose. (7) Even though natural sweeteners like raw honey and maple syrup are better options, they can still affect blood sugar levels, so only use these foods on occasion. Your best option is to switch to stevia, a natural sweetener that won’t have as much of an impact.
Insulin is a hormone that is produced by specialized cells (beta cells) of the pancreas. (The pancreas is a deep-seated organ in the abdomen located behind the stomach.) In addition to helping glucose enter the cells, insulin is also important in tightly regulating the level of glucose in the blood. After a meal, the blood glucose level rises. In response to the increased glucose level, the pancreas normally releases more insulin into the bloodstream to help glucose enter the cells and lower blood glucose levels after a meal. When the blood glucose levels are lowered, the insulin release from the pancreas is turned down. It is important to note that even in the fasting state there is a low steady release of insulin than fluctuates a bit and helps to maintain a steady blood sugar level during fasting. In normal individuals, such a regulatory system helps to keep blood glucose levels in a tightly controlled range. As outlined above, in patients with diabetes, the insulin is either absent, relatively insufficient for the body's needs, or not used properly by the body. All of these factors cause elevated levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia).
Type I diabetes usually occurs in people who are below the age 20 and that is why it is also called as juvenile diabetes. In this type, the body becomes partially or completely unable to produce insulin. Type I diabetes is an autoimmune disease. In this, your immune system attacks the pancreas from where the insulin is produced, thereby making the pancreas inefficient or unable to produce insulin. Type I diabetes cannot be prevented, it can only be controlled with healthy lifestyle changes.
People with diabetes are unable to control the level of sugar in their blood, usually due to a breakdown in how their bodies use the hormone insulin. It’s not completely clear how obesity can contribute to diabetes, but it is known that excess weight is associated with chronic inflammation and a dysfunctional metabolism. And these factors in turn make it easier for someone to stop responding to the presence of insulin as easily as they once did. So by using surgery to help very obese people with diabetes lose weight, the logic goes, you can indirectly treat or prevent the condition. But doctors such as David Cummings, a senior investigator at the University of Washington’s Diabetes & Obesity Center of Excellence, are pushing back against this way of thinking.
Acetaminophen, aspirin, ibuprofen, or naproxen can ease mild to moderate pain caused by diabetic nerve damage, says Kimberly Sackheim, DO, a clinical assistant professor of rehabilitation medicine at NYU Langone Medical Center's Rusk Rehabilitation. "But speak with your physician if you take them regularly," she says. Some of these drugs may raise your risk of heart attack, stroke, or kidney damage.
Monitoring your caloric intake may be helpful if you’re overweight, but everyone with type 2 diabetes should track how many carbs they’re taking in. That can be tricky because carbs are in many of the common foods you may already eat, but there are both good and bad sources of carbs. Fruits and vegetables, for example, are good sources, while pretzels and cookies are bad sources. (29)
Dr. Steven Lin is a dentist who focusses on the mouth-body connection. Through ancestral nutrition, the oral and gut microbiome, and epigenetics, his programs aim to prevent chronic dental and systemic disease. His book 'The Dental Diet', will be released on January 18'. To receive free updates on functional oral health from Dr. Lin, subscribe to his newsletter below.
Talk to your doctor before using treatments based on capsaicin. It can cause allergic reactions, interact with other drugs, or cause dangerous side effects on open sores and irritated or sensitive skin. It might also make you more sensitive to the sun and other sources of heat. Avoid excessive exposure to sunlight or heat when using capsaicin creams or lotions.
Brand’s talk veered only more earnest, about his own trials with addiction to crack and heroin and how 12-step programs helped him “get the keys to his life back.” Drugs are a symbol, he implored. “The craving isn’t for drugs. All yearning and desire are inappropriate substitutes for what you want, which is to be at one with God, which is connection.”
Healthy fats: Medium-chained fatty acids found in coconut and red palm oil can help balance blood sugar levels, and they serve as the preferred fuel source for your body rather than sugar. Using coconut milk, ghee and grass-fed butter can also help balance out your blood sugar levels, so include these foods into your meals and smoothies. Some research actually suggests that a high-fat, low carb diet known as the keto diet may be a novel approach to reverse diabetes naturally, although you don’t technically have to go into ketosis to achieve the benefits of healthy fats in treating diabetes. (12)

Efforts to cure or stop type 1 diabetes are still in the early stages, and these approaches will also not be suitable for people that have already lost their insulin-producing cells. A solution could be the creation of an “artificial pancreas” — a fully automated system that can measure glucose levels and inject the right amount of insulin into the bloodstream, just like a healthy pancreas would.
The term "type 1 diabetes" has replaced several former terms, including childhood-onset diabetes, juvenile diabetes, and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Likewise, the term "type 2 diabetes" has replaced several former terms, including adult-onset diabetes, obesity-related diabetes, and noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Beyond these two types, there is no agreed-upon standard nomenclature.[citation needed]
Diabetes is the major cause of blindness, kidney failure, heart attack and stroke. The number of people affected by all types of diabetic disorders is now over four times higher than just 40 years ago. This has led the World Health Organization (WHO) to consider diabetes an epidemic, predicting it will soon be the seventh biggest cause of death worldwide.
People with diabetes may also worry about trying new foods; traveling; diabetes complications; the toll the condition takes on their family; and healthcare costs, which are 2.3 times higher than for someone without diabetes. For Sandi, she worries about the cost of medication and, if her kidneys worsen, the possibility that she’ll have to go on dialysis. “That’s a really scary thought,” she says.

The Wellness Center promotes positive health behaviors and encourages social connections that support student success. We use health promotion theory and campaigns, programming, individual assessments and consultation, along with peer-to-peer outreach to improve the health of individual students and our campus. We provide support and education for life outside the classroom so you can maximize your time at CWU and build skills for the future.


The ketogenic, or keto, diet calls for dramatically increasing your fat intake and consuming a moderate amount of protein and a very low amount of carbs, with the aim of kicking your body into a natural metabolic state called ketosis, in which it relies on burning fat rather than carbs for energy. Ketosis is different from diabetic ketoacidosis, a health emergency that occurs when insulin levels are low in conjunction with high levels of ketones. (37) Ketones are by-products of metabolism that are released in the blood when carb intake is low.
A computer-controlled algorithm connects the CGM and insulin pump so they communicate. As the CGM detects high blood sugar, the pump knows to provide a specific amount of insulin. The goal is to provide the patient with more normalized and ideal blood sugar management without the constant hassle of decisions by the patient who is presumably allowed to live a more normal life.
The last time I was in Palm Springs was a year ago for the TEDMED conference (relational platform?), and at the time I was mystified. It was a full house at the price of $4,950 a ticket, even though TED Talks are available for free online. The videos can be sped up if the speaker is boring, segments can be skipped, and tabs can be opened to keep the talk running in the background while getting some email done or shopping for shoes. There would seem, then, very little reason to need to go to the actual conference, to sit through marathon sessions where a fair number of speakers mess up or forget their lines (as I did).
In type 2 diabetes the body has an increasingly harder time to handle all the sugar in the blood. Large amounts of the blood sugar-lowering hormone insulin are produced, but it’s still not enough, as insulin sensitivity decreases. At the time of being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, diabetics usually have ten times more insulin in their bodies than normal. As a side effect, this insulin stores fat and causes weight gain, something that has often been in progress for many years before the disease was diagnosed.

I just wanted to drop you a line and thank you for that post… My lab results at the beginning of the month were 230. After just this last week it’s down to 155. I think I’ll be in normal range within a month. Really miraculous… It’s really been a game changer for me already and I wanted you to know how much I appreciated the info and how much of a difference I think it will make in my life.


Be active every day. Exercise is one of the best ways to keep your blood sugar under control. It also improves blood flow and keeps your heart healthy. The American Diabetes Association recommends 150 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise a week for most adults with diabetes. Also, it suggests taking a break from sitting every 30 minutes to get a few quick bursts of activity. But talk with your doctor or physical therapist first. If you have decreased feeling in your legs, some types of exercise may be safer than others.

To explain what hemoglobin A1c is, think in simple terms. Sugar sticks, and when it's around for a long time, it's harder to get it off. In the body, sugar sticks too, particularly to proteins. The red blood cells that circulate in the body live for about three months before they die off. When sugar sticks to these hemoglobin proteins in these cells, it is known as glycosylated hemoglobin or hemoglobin A1c (HBA1c). Measurement of HBA1c gives us an idea of how much sugar is present in the bloodstream for the preceding three months. In most labs, the normal range is 4%-5.9 %. In poorly controlled diabetes, its 8.0% or above, and in well controlled patients it's less than 7.0% (optimal is <6.5%). The benefits of measuring A1c is that is gives a more reasonable and stable view of what's happening over the course of time (three months), and the value does not vary as much as finger stick blood sugar measurements. There is a direct correlation between A1c levels and average blood sugar levels as follows.


This book was written in 1999 so I had this uncanny feeling in the back of my head that a lot of water has run over the dam since it was written. The author is a medical doctor with type 2 diabetes who weighed 313 pounds and was a first year medical student before he got the message of needing to do something about his health. He has some suggestions about reversal of diabetes that are interesting and give me pause for thought. His message in its majority is addressed to diabetics who are not ta ...more
This medical-grade polyester is currently used in teeth guards that kids and adults wear at night, in tiny tubes used to guide the growth of damaged nerve fibers and in surgical sutures.  Researchers are also looking at PCL’s potential as an implant to deliver medications directly to the eyes and to tumors and as a scaffold for growing human tissue.  PCL may be an ideal package for islet cells, the studies note, because it can be used to create thin, flexible membranes with pores that let in glucose and nutrients, let out insulin and exclude bigger immune-system molecules.

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At Diabetes Daily, we prefer using the word remission over cure because far too often the state of diabetes returns even with people’s best efforts. Regardless of the definition of a cure, finding a way to live with little to know highs or lows is a worthwhile endeavor. Long-term studies show that even a few years of great blood sugars significantly reduces your long-term risk of complications.
The relationship between type 2 diabetes and the main modifiable risk factors (excess weight, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and tobacco use) is similar in all regions of the world. There is growing evidence that the underlying determinants of diabetes are a reflection of the major forces driving social, economic and cultural change: globalization, urbanization, population aging, and the general health policy environment.[74]
The NIH National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Diseases and Kidney Diseases says it, “currently supports studies that are working toward obtaining FDA licensure to reclassify islet allo-transplantation as therapeutic. In other countries, such as Canada and Scandinavia, islet allo-transplantation is no longer considered experimental and is an accepted therapy in certain patients.” It adds that “Some patient advocates and islet researchers feel that islet allo-transplantation is close to having a therapeutic label.”
Brand’s talk veered only more earnest, about his own trials with addiction to crack and heroin and how 12-step programs helped him “get the keys to his life back.” Drugs are a symbol, he implored. “The craving isn’t for drugs. All yearning and desire are inappropriate substitutes for what you want, which is to be at one with God, which is connection.”
Complaints about preventative go back to the late 18th century. The spelling reformer James Elphinston wrote in 1787 that preventative could be heard among Londoners in unguarded speech, along with other disapproved pronunciations like umberella and mischievious that sneak in an extra syllable (a process that linguists call "epenthesis"). A 1795 review of the Earl of Lauderdale's "Letters to the Peers of Scotland" criticized the appearance of preventative in the text, declaring that it was "not English." Similarly, Francis Barnett took Andrew Reed's "No Fiction" to task in 1823 for including the word: "In the English language there is no such word as preventative, preventive there is."
First, the health of your gut is critical to your overall health. This is because your gut is home of trillions of microbes called the gut microbiome. These microbes work in symbiotic and antagonistic relationships within your body. A 2017 study using multiple therapies to manipulate the gut microbiome composition, found they could impact the individual’s health more rapidly. This study also found manipulating the gut microbiome as an effective way to avoid insulin resistance and therefore prevent diabetes.

Benari, an Ashkenazi Jew, doesn’t fall into that category. But Cummings and other bariatric experts I spoke to said that surgery should be a possible option for any person whose diabetes isn’t improving. Cummings himself is currently working on a clinical trial in India of bariatric patients with BMIs as low as 25. And he expects similar trials will come down the pipeline.
At present, the American Diabetes Association does not recommend general screening of the population for type 1 diabetes, though screening of high risk individuals, such as those with a first degree relative (sibling or parent) with type 1 diabetes should be encouraged. Type 1 diabetes tends to occur in young, lean individuals, usually before 30 years of age; however, older patients do present with this form of diabetes on occasion. This subgroup is referred to as latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA). LADA is a slow, progressive form of type 1 diabetes. Of all the people with diabetes, only approximately 10% have type 1 diabetes and the remaining 90% have type 2 diabetes.
Weight loss surgery in those with obesity and type two diabetes is often an effective measure.[14] Many are able to maintain normal blood sugar levels with little or no medications following surgery[95] and long-term mortality is decreased.[96] There is, however, a short-term mortality risk of less than 1% from the surgery.[97] The body mass index cutoffs for when surgery is appropriate are not yet clear.[96] It is recommended that this option be considered in those who are unable to get both their weight and blood sugar under control.[98]
The centerpiece of the weekend was a keynote by Russell Brand. I got in early as a member of the media and grabbed a seat in the front row of the enormous multipurpose convention space. I was sitting watching stagehands and audiovisual technicians bustling around when, about 10 minutes before the crowd was to be let in, Brand came onstage and appeared horrified at the layout of the audience seating. There was a 12-foot aisle in the center, directly in front of where Brand was to stand at his microphone. “This is death,” he scolded, pointing at the space. “I’m supposed to perform into this?”
In 2003, ephedrine -- also known as ma huang -- became the first herbal stimulant ever banned by the FDA. It was a popular component of over-the-counter weight loss drugs. Ephedrine had some benefits, but it could cause far more harm, especially in high doses: insomnia (difficulty falling and staying asleep), high blood pressure, glaucoma, and urinary retention. This herbal supplement has also been associated with numerous cases of stroke.
Diabetes Relief’s treatment program actually reconditions your metabolism. Consider this: Diabetes is not the root cause of your condition but a label used to categorize your comorbidities. Diabetes stems from a metabolic disorder and, through infusion therapy and natural supplements custom designed as part of the care plan, a patient’s metabolism gets a much-needed boost between treatments. Not only are patients reporting a decreased dependency on insulin, but wounds are healing, neuropathy is dissipating, and vision is returning!
In addition to walking and stretching exercises, try interval training cardio, like burst training, or weight training three to five days a week for 20–40 minutes. Burst training can help you burn up to three times more body fat than traditional cardio and can naturally increase insulin sensitivity. You can do this on a spin bike with intervals, or you can try burst training at home.

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People with type 2 diabetes have insulin resistance, which means the body cannot use insulin properly to help glucose get into the cells. In people with type 2 diabetes, insulin doesn’t work well in muscle, fat, and other tissues, so your pancreas (the organ that makes insulin) starts to put out a lot more of it to try and compensate. "This results in high insulin levels in the body,” says Fernando Ovalle, MD, director of the multidisciplinary diabetes clinic at the University of Alabama in Birmingham. This insulin level sends signals to the brain that your body is hungry.
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